Kojic acid is as an important intermediate in the production of chemicals that can be used as pharmaceuticals. kojic acid is a metabolite and organic acid produced by various fungal strains such as aspergillus. It is a secondary metabolite secreted by several microorganisms of Aspergillus genus such as Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus tamarri, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus . There are almost 58 different strains used for production of kojic acid are Penicilium, Mucor, Aspergillus etc. Kojic acid is also produced by using several plants such as Kigella African. kojic acid is known as 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-δ-pyrone.
Kojic acid is a inhibitor of tyrosinase. Kojic acid halts the formation of melanin in human melanocytes due to the reversible inhibition of tyrosinase. Kojic acid inhibits the interaction of the natural substrate L-tyrosine, and prevents the formation of the successive L-DOPA. These competitive inhibitors also acts by preventing the formation of DOPAquinone, and preventing melanin biosynthesis.
Kojic acid has a melanogenesis-inhibitory effect and acts as a ultra violet protector, and it suppresses hyper-pigmentation in human skins by halting the formation of melanin through the inhibition of tyrosinase formation, tyrosinase is responsible for skin pigmentation.
Kojic acid induces a reduction of eumelanin and it is a essential precursor monomer, 5,6DHI 2C in hyper-pigmented B16 cells. It shows melanogenesis it is a inhibitory effect of kojic acid on the ultraviolet-induced hyper-pigmentation and pigmentary disorders of human skins. It can be used in combination with alpha-hydroxy acid to lighten freckles and agespots.
kojic acid consist of manganese and zinc complexes and potentially used as radio protective agents, particularly against γ-ray. Kojic acid is a tyrosinase inhibitor and reduces production of melanin in the skin.
Kojic acid possess antibiotic properties against gram-negative as well as gram-positive micro-organisms. The bacterial growth is halted in the presence of more than 0.5% (w/v) of kojic acid. kojic acid in the form of azidometalkojates also shows antibacterial and antifungal effects on several species of Bacillus ,Staphylacoccus,Saccharomyces ,Aspergillus ,Rhizopus and Fusarium. Kojic acid have a potent activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. kojic acid derivatives was also used for antifungal activities against Phythium graminicola ,Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani.
kojic acid inhibits polyphenol oxidase which is associated to the inhibition of melanosis by interfering the uptake of oxygen required for enzymatic browning, and reduction of o-quinones todiphenols to prevent the formation of the pigment melanin. kojic acid, in combination with glycolic acid and hydroquinone, is used for the treatment of melasma.
kojic acid is used as a whitening agent, melasma treatment, hyper pigmentation, pigmentation inhibitor, depigmentation, skin ageing, ultra violet B inhibitor, ultra violet A inhibitor, antifungal, antibacterial, helps collagen production, radical scavenging activity.
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